Ken Craggs* says:
Here are two people who have a lot to answer for.
Between 1915 and 1938 Sigmund Freud was nominated 32 times for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, but was not awarded. The Nobel Committee in 1929 concluded that Freud’s work was of no proven scientific value. Sigmund Freud was also nominated once for the Nobel Prize in Literature, but not awarded.
Sigmund Freud’s daughter, Anna Freud, began her own psychoanalytical practice with children in 1923 and wrote the book ‘Introduction to the technique of child analysis’. From 1927 – 1934, Anna Freud was Secretary-General of the International Psychoanalytical Association (IPA).
In 1935, Anna Freud became director of the Vienna Psychoanalytical Training Institute, and in 1937 co-founded a nursery school for children of the poor in Vienna. Some of the children’s parents had been reduced to begging. Anna wrote “we were very struck by the fact that they brought the children to us, not because we fed and clothed them and kept them for the length of the day, but because “they learned so much”, i.e. they learned to move freely, to eat independently, to speak, to express their preferences, etc.
To our own surprise the parents valued this beyond everything.” The school was closed after the Nazis invaded Austria in 1938, Sigmund & Anna Freud fled to England and Sigmund died in September 1939.
Anna Freud began training English and American child therapists. And after the war, a group of six orphans aged between 3 years and 3 years 10 months from the Theresianstadt concentration camp came into the care of Anna Freud’s colleagues at Bulldogs Bank.
Here we are told that “although the children each had different needs it was impossible to treat any one of them as an individual, as they were always together as a group. No one child was dominant all the time: they cooperated over nearly everything.
They slowly recovered from their early deprivation, but remained attached to each other…what this study shows is that children can survive without mothers.”
My own post will follow as soon as I can get it together, probably for tomorrow.